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Khalilollah Moeinian, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Hassan Hassanzadazar, Koorosh Kamali, Elaheh Rabiei ,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (12-2016)

Background; Fluoride is an essential nutrient for the human body. The major routes of fluoride intake include food and drinking water, though the absorption of fluoride from food is much easier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of fluoride in the soil and tomato and onion crops on farms of Zanjan.

Methods; Three farms of each crop (tomato and onion) were selected randomly. Each farm was divided into 10 sections, and one sample of soil and crop of each section was taken which means 120 samples in total. Fluoride concentrations in the soil and crops were measured using the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) and repeated 3 times.

Results; The mean concentration of fluoride in soil samples from studied farms in Zanjan was 0.83 ± 0.17 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of fluoride in tomatoes and onions of Zanjan were observed 2.10 ± 0.80 and 2.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg, respectively.

Conclusion;There was no significant difference between fluoride concentration in tomatoes and onions, although there was a significant difference between the amount of fluoride in the soils of studied farms (Pv < 0.024). No significant correlation was observed between the fluoride levels of soils and the fluoride levels of tomatoes (R2 = 0.126) and onions (R2 = 0.008).

Samaneh Taghiloo, Hassan Hassanzadazar, Sajad Chamandoost, Majid Aminzare,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background: Safe drinking water is one of the main factors in improving health status of the population. The aim of this study was assessment of the microbiological quality, determination of pH and residual chlorine in water coolers’ drinking water in educational centers of Zanjan University of medical Sciences in 2015 and comparing the results with the Iranian national standards.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples of all used water cooler apparatuses were sampled and transferred rapidly to the laboratory. pH and residual free chlorine were measured by pH meter and  Chlorine Residual Testing kit, respectively. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Mold and yeasts count were enumerated according to the Iranian national standards No. 1011, 3759, 5271 and 10899-1, respectively. Data were analyzed through the statistical softwares.

Results:The obtained results indicated that 44.44% of the samples were non-standard because of low residual chlorine. 44.44% and 27.8% of the taken water samples of water cooler dispensers were contaminated with mold or yeast and Escherichia coli, respectively.

Conclusion: According to some microbial contamination in water samples of water cooler devices to ensure availability clean water to consumers (students and hospital’s visitors) continuous monitoring, proper maintenance and regular inspection of the water cooler dispensers seems necessary.

Hassan Hassanzadazar, Adibeh Shokrekhoda, Majid Aminzare,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2017)

Background: Proper nutrition is one of the important, essential and vital factors in providing individuals, family and society health and safety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional behaviors of girl students in the school of paramedical and health of Zanjan University of medical sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the winter and spring of 2016. Throughout all girl students in the school 196 students was selected randomly. A researcher made questionnaire was used for data collection. 
Results: As nutritional behavior only 48% of students had breakfast every day and three main serving was daily schedule in 52% of students. At least 13.8% of them ate fast foods once a week. 17.4% of students ate cheeps, puff and snacks as routine. Just 23.5% of them never drank carbonated drink. Different herbal tea was in daily nutrition of 3.6%. 
Conclusion: Due to the mentioned results and some wrong behavior and nutritional loss in the students, it seems important to designing suitable training programs to improve nutritional behaviors and avoiding from use of fast foods, poor quality food and in general, providing a healthy nutrition behavior for students is essential.

Hassan Hassanzadazar, Mahrokh Forghani, Ahdieh Salim, Majid Aminzare,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (12-2017)

Background: Butter is one of the oldest dairy products known in the world and plays an important role in human nutrition. The aim of this study was evaluating of the microbial quality of traditional   and industrial butter marketed in Zanjan.
Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 29 samples of butter were investigated in 2 groups which 24 samples were of traditionally producedl butter and 5 industrially produced butter samples, randomly collected from the market in Zanjan, Iran. All samples were evaluated for total bacterial count, Staphylococci, coliform, fungi and mold.
Results: Fourteen samples of traditional butter had higher coliform load than allowed in standards. Eighteen samples were contaminated with Staphylococcus, and mold was found in 8 samples. Also, fifteen samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli. Among the industrial samples, one was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus but no contamination by coliform, Escherichia coli and mold and mold was observed.
Conclusion: 58.33%, 75%, 33.33% and 62.5% of the traditional butter samples had higher coliform, Staphylococcus, mold and E. coli contamination, respectively than standard limit.  One of the industrial samples was contaminated with Staphylococcus. It is recommended that higher supervision on the production and distribution of these products is applied.


Hassan Hassanzadazar, Samira Yousefizadeh, Azadeh Ghafari, Mehdi Fathollahi, Majid Aminzare,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rosemary essential oil (REO) nanoemulsion against some important food borne pathogens.
Methods: Antibacterial effects of REO and REO nanoemulsion were determined using Agar disc diffusion, Broth microdilution and Steam phase diffusion methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella SP, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis.
Results: Antibacterial effect of REO and REO nanoemulsion was increased with concentration enhancing of REO. There was no significant antibacterial activity in the effectiveness of nanoemulsion on the studied bacteria in comparison with REO in both disk diffusion and steam phase diffusion methods. MIC and MBC analysis of REO and prepared REO nanoemulsion showed that REO and its nanoemulsion have inhibited all studied bacteria. REO showed better inhibitory effects. REO and nanoemulsion of rosemary essential oil have the greatest effect on Shewanella SP., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S.enteritidis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.
Conclusion: In total, it can be said that REO and its nanoemulsion are desirable to inhibit the growth of food borne pathogens and can be a good choice as antimicrobial agents in food industry to enhance safety and extend foods’ shelf life.

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