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Mojtaba Raeisi , Mohammad Hashemi , Ali Reza Sadeghi , Majid Aminzare , Mahdi Khodadadi, Amir Mahmoud Ahmadzadeh , Asma Afshari,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2017)

Background: Zataria multiflora boiss is a member of Lamiaceae family with antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical composition and antibacterial effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil against two foodborne pathogens in meat.
Methods: The inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil (Minimum inhibitory concentration and Minimum bactericidal concentration) was evaluated against Salmonella  typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes, inoculated in ground beef meat after 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage.
Results: Result revealed 26 various compounds, representing 96.27% of total oil. Thymol was the most abundant compound among all constituents (29.2%). A significant reduction was observed in Salmonella typhimurium when adding 1 and 2% Zataria multiflora (p<0.05) compared with 0.5% and 1% concentrations during 9 days of storage. Listeria monocytogenes significantly decreased in treatments with 0.5%, 1 and 2% of Zataria multiflora essential oil.
Conclusion: Zataria multiflora has an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes and in higher concentrations on the growth of S. typhimurium and can be used as a natural preservative in order to retard the growth of food-borne pathogens.

Mahzad Hosseini, Abdollah Jamshidi, Mojtaba Raeisi, Mohammad Azizzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: The Study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial effects, and antioxidant properties of clove and lemon verbena essential oils (EOs).
Methods: The chemical composition of the EOs was identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, the antibacterial effects of EOs against seven important foodborne bacteria were assessed using the disk-diffusion, agar well-diffusion, and broth microdilution assays. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the EOs was carried out using DPPH, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and reducing power assay.
Results: All the tested bacteria demonstrated susceptibility to EOs, with the highest susceptibility observed in Bacillus cereus to the clove EO in the agar disk-diffusion test. Moreover, Shigella dysenteriae was identified as the most sensitive bacterium to the lemon verbena EO. Salmonella typhimurium was the most resistant bacterium to both EOs. In the agar well-diffusion test, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. typhimurium had the lowest sensitivity to the clove and lemon verbena EOs, respectively. Although both EOs exhibited significant antioxidant capacity, the lemon verbena EO showed higher antioxidant activity in all the tests, with the exception of β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching test.
Conclusion: Clove and lemon verbena EOs could be regarded as potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food processing.

Mahdi Sadeghi, Mojtaba Raeisi, Mina Ghahrechi, Narges Rezaie, Bagher Pahlevanzadehe,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2019)

Background: With the growing use of bottled water, the continuous research and monitoring of the quality of these products are crucial. The present study aimed to assess the chemical quality of the bottled water distributed in Gorgan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted on the samples of bottled water distributed in Gorgan city. Sampling was performed during four months (one sample of each brand obtained every month; total: 36). The chemical quality of the samples was measured using standard methods.
Results: The mean concentrations of nitrate, fluoride, and iron and mean pH of the samples were 12.92 ± 11.05, 0.33 ± 0.12, and 0.64 ± 2.9 mg/l and 6.89 ± 0.39, respectively. Only the physicochemical parameters of pH and iron were significantly higher than the standard values, and the mean levels of the chemical factors were significantly lower than the standard values (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Consumers expect bottled water to have higher quality as they perceive the product to be a healthier choice than the water supplied by urban distribution networks. High levels of some chemical parameters could adversely affect the health of consumers, especially vulnerable populations, which should be taken into consideration by custodians and authorities.

Marziyeh Rezaei, Morteza Khomeiri, Maryam Ebrahimi, Sonia Kiani, Mojtaba Raeisi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background: Milk is an essential human nutrient, and the monitoring of its sanitation is vital during transportation and storage. The present study aimed to assess bacteriological contamination with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes in the raw milk samples of the dairy farms in Golestan province, Iran.
Methods: In total, 100 samples were collected from dairy farms in hot and cold seasons. The frequency of E. coli and L. monocytogenes was determined using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: The biochemical tests indicated that 28% and 27% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on the culture-dependent methods, respectively. In addition, 35 and 40 samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on PCR, respectively. PCR had higher sensitivity compared to the biochemical tests (P ˂ 0.05). E. coli and L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly higher in traditional dairy farms than industrial dairy farms (P ˂ 0.05). However, seasonal sampling and geographical region had no significant effects on the contamination load.
Conclusion: According to the results, E. coli and L. monocytogenes were highly frequent in the raw milks samples. However, the microbial loads had no significant differences in hot seasons and traditional dairy farms.

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